1、勾描线条 着色填墨 作伪者用纸或绢覆于字画原作上，用细碳条或尖铅笔双勾描下线条轮廓，如果是书法，即在空心中填墨;若是绘画，则按线条轮廓对照原作模仿着色。这种伪作乍看还像，但仔细端详就会发现整幅作品气韵滞钝，笔锋呆板少神，墨色缺少浓淡。这种手法以伪造名人题款和名家书法为多。
1. In the case of calligraphy, ink is filled in the hollow space; in the case of painting, the line contour is imitated by comparing the line outline with the line outline. This kind of forgery is similar at first sight, but if you look at it carefully, you will find that the whole work is dull in spirit, inflexible in brushwork and short in ink. This kind of technique mainly forges the famous person's title money and the famous calligrapher's calligraphy.
2、改头换面 张冠李戴 作伪者利用残破字画或无款字画，采取挖、洗、添、改、移等各种手段，将无款作品变成有款作品，将近代作品改成古代作品，将一般作品改成名家作品，曾使不少功力不深、见识不广的投资者上当受骗，甚至行里人也难免落入圈套。
2. The counterfeiters used broken calligraphy and painting or no money calligraphy and painting to dig, wash, add, change, move and other means to change the works without money into the works of money, modern works into ancient works, and ordinary works into works of famous artists. Many investors with little skill and knowledge were cheated, and even the professionals were inevitably trapped.
3、临摹伪造 鱼目混珠： 仿品字画在我国流传已久，有同时代的仿品，也有后人仿古人的伪品，如明代沈周、仇英和清代郑板桥、石谷，近代吴昌硕、齐白石等人，本人在世时就有模仿品，仿得像的传到后世很难辨别真伪。以齐白石为例，他有众多学子，还有儿子、女儿等，他们长期跟齐白石学画，有的学得很精，临摹之作几可乱真，这种仿品称之为“门内假”，有的仿品齐白石还为其题款，那就更难识别真假。
3. Imitation and forgery: imitations of calligraphy and paintings have been popular for a long time in China. There are imitations of the same era and imitations of the ancients by later generations, such as Shen Zhou and Qiu Ying in the Ming Dynasty, Zheng Banqiao and Wang shigu in the Qing Dynasty, Wu Changshuo and Qi Baishi in modern times. When I was alive, I had imitations. It is difficult to distinguish the authenticity of imitations. Taking Qi Baishi as an example, he has many students, as well as his sons and daughters. They have been learning painting with Qi Baishi for a long time. Some of them have learned very well, and the imitations can be confused with the truth. This kind of imitation is called "fake inside the door". Some imitations are still inscribed by Qi Baishi, so it is more difficult to identify the true from the false.
4、木版水印 充当真迹 几年前有位字画爱好者从旧物市场买得一幅徐悲鸿的《奔马》镜片，连同花梨镜框才花2000元，自以为拣了个大漏儿，邀两位好友去他家看画，一位朋友说真迹无疑，另一位却摇头不语。主人忙问：“难道你不认识徐悲鸿的画吗?”朋友为难地说：“这的确是徐悲鸿的画，但这是天津杨柳青的木版水印画，作旧后裱成的镜片。”仔细审视，恍然顿悟。
4. A few years ago, a calligraphy and painting enthusiast bought Xu Beihong's "galloping horse" lens from a second-hand market for only 2000 yuan. He thought he had picked up a big leak. One day, he invited two friends to his home to see the painting. One friend said that there was no doubt about the authenticity, but the other shook his head. The host asked, "don't you know Xu Beihong's paintings?" the friend said in embarrassment, "this is indeed Xu Beihong's painting, but this is a woodblock watermark painting of Tianjin Yangliuqing, which is used as a lens mounted after being used." After careful examination, I suddenly realized.
5、模仿特征 造假作伪 有很多名人字画，风格极其鲜明，特点非常突出，不少玩字画的“老手”，以不看题款便知何人作品来炫耀自己的“眼力”，作伪者抓住这些人的轻浮心理，专门模仿原作特征，以至达到以假乱真程度，使某些骄傲粗心的投资者打眼上当。
5. Imitation of characteristics There are a lot of famous calligraphy and paintings with distinctive styles and outstanding characteristics. Many "old hands" who play with calligraphy and painting show off their "eyesight" by knowing who works without looking at the title. The forgers seize these people's frivolous psychology and imitate the characteristics of the original works, so as to achieve the degree of falsehood and falsehood, so that some proud and careless investors are cheated.
6、假中有真 真中有假 有很多书画家因索求作品的人太多，应接不暇时，就请有一定功力的人代笔。如明代董其昌的代笔人有赵左、沈士充、叶有年和吴振等;清代赵之谦请庭训代笔;扬州八怪之一金农，曾请罗聘、项均代笔;刘奎龄则由其子刘继卣代笔。据行家评论，刘继卣的功力已超过其父刘奎龄，《刘奎龄画集》里就有不少是由其子代笔的。代笔的作品中，往往也有本人添过画笔或墨迹，还有自题名款的，这种作品严格说不能算伪品，但亦不是真品。
6. There are many calligraphers and painters who ask for their works. When they are too busy, they ask someone with certain skills to write for them. For example, in the Ming Dynasty, Dong Qichang's ghostwriters were Zhao Zuo, Shen Shichong, ye Younian and Wu Zhen; in the Qing Dynasty, Zhao Zhiqian asked Wang tingxun to write for him; Jinnong, one of the eight monsters in Yangzhou, once asked Luo pin and Xiang Jun to write for him; Liu kuiling was written by his son Liu Jiyou. According to experts' comments, Liu Jiyou's skill has surpassed that of his father, Liu kuiling. Many of the paintings of Liu kuiling are written by his son. Among the works written by others, some of them have added their own brush or ink, and others have their own names. Strictly speaking, such works can not be regarded as fakes, but they are not authentic ones.
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