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山水画的在构图上应该注意什么?

发布人:http://www.hzzhpf.com    发布时间:2019-08-27 16:04:58    

1.宾主
1. Guests and hosts
一幅画中,须重点描绘又处于画面重心处的,即为“主”,环境、陪衬、呼应部分即为“宾”,不能喧宾夺主。
In a painting, it is necessary to focus on describing and at the center of the picture, that is, the "master". The environment, the foil and the echo part are the "guests", so that they can not compete with each other.
2.虚实
2. False and Real
画中有峰、石、树、木处为“实”,烟、云、水面处为“虚”。实处用笔浓重而繁密,虚处则轻笔淡略。
There are peaks, stones, trees and trees in the painting as "solid", while smoke, clouds and water are "virtual". Practical use of heavy and dense pen, empty is light and light.
3.疏密
3. Density
画面景物应有聚有散、疏密相间,有节奏感。“疏可走马,密不通风”是构图的一个重要原则。
The scenery should be scattered, dense and rhythmic. One of the important principles of composition is "to be sparse but not ventilated".
4.穿插
4. Interruption
画中树木前后左右高低参差变化,或以横出的枝干破并列的枝干,或以云烟的横势流动穿行横直势的山峦树木之间,以丰富画面。
The trees in the picture vary in height from side to side, or break the parallel branches with the horizontal branches, or move through the straight mountains and trees with the cross-flow of clouds and smoke to enrich the picture.
5.呼应
5. Response
树木山石之间拟左顾右盼,景物之间要相互呼应。
Trees, mountains and rocks should look left and right, and the scenery should correspond to each other.
6.趋势
6. Trends
自然界中的山或树受客观条件的影响,有时向某一方向倾斜,形成一种趋势。对此使用得法,可增加画面的生动感。
Mountains or trees in nature are affected by objective conditions, sometimes tilting in a certain direction, forming a trend. It can increase the vividness of the picture if used properly.
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7.龙脉
7. Dragon Vein
同一走向的群山称为山脉,俗称龙脉。绘画中充分注意龙脉的走向变化,可使山气势连绵。
Mountains of the same direction are called mountains, commonly known as dragon veins. In painting, full attention should be paid to the change of the direction of the Dragon vein, which can make the mountain momentum continuous.
8.开合
8. Opening and closing
这是在画面上置阵布势之法,开是阵势的展开,是向外扩展,合是阵势的合拢,是向内收紧。开合应巧妙使用。
This is the way to arrange the position on the screen. The opening is the expansion of the position, the expansion of the position, the closure of the position and the tightening of the position. Opening and closing should be skillfully used.
构图要讲究取舍剪裁,宾主呼应,虑实结合,疏密适当,开合适度,远近层次,大小搭配,高低错落等关系。这些关系讲得再具体也难于操作,必须靠画家自己去探索和掌握,所以这里不展开讲,构图总的要求是画面协调统一优美,好上能见天下能见地(江河),切忌满纸画得满满的,一点空白也没有,空白称为留白,是山水画的重要法则,国画讲究意到笔不到,留白处理恰当,更有此处无声胜有声之效。
Composition should pay attention to the relationship of choice and tailoring, guest-host response, consideration and combination, density and appropriateness, opening and closing appropriately, distance and proximity levels, size matching, high and low scattering, etc. These relations are more specific and difficult to operate, and must be explored and mastered by the artist himself. Therefore, the general requirement of composition here is that the picture should be coordinated, unified and graceful, so that the world can see (rivers and rivers) well. It is absolutely necessary to avoid full paper and no blank at all. The blank is called blank, which is a heavy part of landscape painting. To rule, Chinese painting pays attention to the fact that it can't be written, that the blank space is handled properly, and that silence is more effective than sound.
构图是关乎整幅画美感度的关键,不可不重视。为了形象的说明,下面列举三景构图法、三层构图法、三远构图法及多角度构图范例如下,其中三远构图法巳在前面述过,不再赘述。
Composition is the key to the aesthetic sensibility of the whole painting, which should not be ignored. In order to illustrate the image, the following list of three-view composition method, three-layer composition method, Three-Far composition method and multi-angle composition model, such as the following, of which the Three-Far composition method has been described in the previous, not to repeat.
三景构图,是指画面的总体布局,通常由主景区、附景区、配景区三部份组成,主景主要由山石或大树构成,在画面中占显要位置。附景也由山石、树木等构成,但位置附属,且占用画面应小于、低于主景。配景通常由远山、云雾、水波、人物、车船、丛林等构成,在画面上主要起点缀作用,有时也可不设附景配景。
Three-view composition refers to the overall layout of the picture, which is usually composed of three parts: main scenic area, attached scenic area and matching scenic area. The main scene is mainly composed of rocks or trees, which occupies an important position in the picture. Affiliated scenery is also made up of rocks, trees, etc., but the location is attached, and the occupied picture should be less than or less than the main scene. The scenery is usually composed of distant mountains, clouds, water waves, characters, cars, boats, jungles, etc. It mainly plays an embellishing role in the picture, sometimes without the scenery.