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国画批发网分享苏东坡是对文人画的影响

发布人:http://www.hzzhpf.com    发布时间:2019-12-03 18:26:03    

  其真实北宋时期,一切的艺术呈现出一种类似的兴味:新的诗歌、书法、绘画都是由一群人,即苏东坡和他的朋友们所开创的。苏轼喜好结交朋友,他的人格也深远影响着他的朋友们,在热衷绘画创作和评论的文人中,苏东坡是中心人物。这个以苏东坡为中心群里还包含三位著名的画家,分别是文同、李公麟和驸马王诜。苏东坡与大画家文同是很亲的亲戚,与李公麟,王诜、米芾为朋友,文同等人也教过他如何作画;就绘画而论,文同、李公麟和米芾的艺术或许比苏东坡更胜一筹,但是苏东坡的名望,使得其他文人疾速接受了文人艺术。在书法范畴,蔡襄首创的新范式在苏东坡、黄庭坚、米芾那里得到进一步展开。固然他们的作风基础还是学习王羲之,但这种新范式不拘一格。苏东坡和米芾似乎更为主张以直抒心胸为目的,而不太在意美学上的圆满,并极具个性。因此他们一旦转入绘画,便创造出新的表现方式,并培育了各自的作风。苏轼的枯木怪石写意画中的意境,正是梅尧臣和黄庭坚诗中被人赞扬的东西。
  In the true Northern Song Dynasty, all the arts showed a similar interest: new poetry, calligraphy and painting were created by a group of people, namely Su Dongpo and his friends. Su Shi likes to make friends, and his personality has a profound impact on his friends. Among the literati who are keen on painting creation and comment, Su Dongpo is the central figure. The group centered on Su Dongpo also includes three famous painters, Wen Tong, Li Gonglin and Wang Shen, the son-in-law. Su Dongpo is a close relative of Wen Tong, a great painter. He is also a friend of Li Gonglin, Wang Shen and Mi Fu. Wen Tong and others have taught him how to draw. In terms of painting, the arts of Wen Tong, Li Gonglin and Mi Fu may be better than those of Su Dongpo, but Su Dongpo's fame makes other literati quickly accept the literati art. In the field of calligraphy, the new paradigm initiated by Cai Xiang was further developed in Su Dongpo, Huang Tingjian and Mi Fu. Although their style of work is based on Wang Xizhi's study, this new paradigm is not rigid. It seems that Su Dongpo and Mi Fu are the most important ones to express their hearts and minds directly, but they don't care much about the perfection of aesthetics and have great personality. So once they turn to painting, they will create a new way of expression and cultivate their own style. The artistic conception in Su Shi's freehand brushwork is exactly what Mei Yaochen and Huang Tingjian praised in their poems.
  “乌台诗案”中,王诜得知缉拿苏东坡的消息,立刻派人通风报信,好让苏东坡早做准备。王诜后因“乌台诗案”而受牵连,被贬为昭化军节度行军司马。由此可见王诜和苏东坡的有情至深。
国画批发
  In the "Wutai poem case", Wang Shen heard about the arrest of Su Dongpo, and immediately sent a messenger to let Su Dongpo prepare for it. Wang Shen was later implicated in the "Wutai poem case" and was demoted to be the commander of Zhaohua army. This shows that Wang Shen and Su Dongpo have deep feelings.
  文人们自己并非没有认识到,自己在诗歌和书法艺术方面扮演着改造者的角色,或许这正是潜藏在苏东坡士人画定义背后的认识。他注重作品中的“士气”,而不是它的作风主题;在苏东坡看来,画是像诗那样的艺术,应当做为闲暇时的一种自我表达的方式。文人画是文人显露个性的表现方式,但这些作品常常是在朋友们饮酒聚会时创作的。苏东坡在文人的交往中,绘画一次扮演了重要的角色。传为李公麟所绘的《西园雅集图》中,表现了他们在王诜西园的聚会场面,沉浸于典型的文人式消遣中。苏东坡常在与朋友饮酒时即席作画,他的诗作也常常以这种方式奔涌而出。有一次他去拜望米芾,笔墨纸砚和酒已在桌上备好,他们相互写诗唱和,彻夜不辍。米芾通知我们苏东坡如何作画:“。。。。。。初见公,酒酣,曰:君贴此纸壁上,观音纸也。即起作两枝竹,一枯树,一怪石。(米芾,《画史》)”黄庭坚也曾描画过苏东坡在聚会上的典型状态:他酒量有限,几杯酒下肚就酣然入睡,不一会儿又霍但是起,奋笔书画。在《郭祥正家醉画竹石壁上郭作诗为谢且遗古铜剑》中,苏东坡向主人郭祥正表示歉意,自己到主人家作客,饮酒后把竹石画于主人家白墙上。
  The literati themselves did not fail to realize that they played the role of reformers in poetry and calligraphy. Maybe this is the understanding behind the definition of Su Dongpo's literati painting. In Su Dongpo's view, painting is an art like poetry and should be a way of self-expression in his spare time. Literati painting is a way for literati to show their personality, but these works are often created when friends have a drink party. Su Dongpo played an important role in literati communication for the first time. It's said that in the painting of elegant collection of Western Garden drawn by Li Gonglin, it shows their gathering scene in Wang Shen's western garden, immersed in typical literati entertainment. Su Dongpo often improvises when drinking with his friends, and his poems often rush out in this way. Once he went to visit Mi Fu. The ink, paper, inkstone and wine were ready on the table. They wrote poems and sang with each other all night long. Mi Fu informs us how Su Dongpo drew the picture...... When I first saw Gong, I was drunk, and said, "you stick this paper on the wall, so is Guanyin paper.". That is, two bamboos, a dead tree and a strange stone. (Mi Fu, painting history) "Huang Tingjian once described Su Dongpo's typical state at the party: he had a limited amount of alcohol, fell asleep after a few drinks, and soon he was too busy to start painting and calligraphy. In Guo Xiangzheng's drunken painting of bamboo and stone walls, he wrote a poem to thank Guo for leaving the ancient bronze sword, Su Dongpo apologized to his master, Guo Xiangzheng, and went to his master's house as a guest. After drinking, he painted the bamboo and stone on the white wall of his master's house.
  王诜曾邀同苏轼、苏辙、黄庭坚、米芾、蔡肇、李之仪、李公麟、晁补之、张耒、秦观、刘泾、陈景元、王钦臣、郑嘉会、圆通大师(日本渡宋僧大江定基)十六人游园。李公麟为之作《西园雅集图》,米芾又为此图作记,即《西园雅集图记》。史称“西园雅集”。
  Wang Shen once invited 16 people to visit the park, including Su Shi, Su Zhe, Huang Tingjian, Mi Fu, Cai Zhao, Li Zhiyi, Li Gonglin, Chao Buzhi, Zhang Lei, Qin Guan, Liu Jing, Chen Jingyuan, Wang Qinchen, Zheng Jiahui, and master Yuantong (Japanese monk who crossed Song Dynasty, Dajiang Dingji). Li Gonglin wrote the Western Garden atlas, which Mi Fu wrote down, namely, the Western Garden atlas. It is historically known as "West Garden elegant collection".
  米芾《画史》中指出的:“以深墨为面,淡墨为背,自与可始。”比幅作品的画法较之苏东坡更工稳一些,也是我们目前能见到早起的一幅文人墨竹画的模范之作。此画亦无款,仅有两印:“静闲口室”、“文同与可”。
  In Mi Fu's painting history, he pointed out that "deep ink is the surface, light ink is the back, and we can start with it." Compared with Su Dongpo's, the painting method of this work is more stable, and it is also a model work of literati's ink and bamboo painting that we can see early now. This painting has no style, only two prints: "quiet and leisure room", "Wen Tong and Ke".
  苏东坡确实能画,但他只能画一些枯木、丛竹、怪事之类。他有诗云:“东坡随时湖州拍,竹石风流各一时。”这次佳士得香港秋拍要拍的这幅《古木怪石图》,无苏轼之款,根据刘良佐、米芾的题跋可知道是苏东坡所作。此图手卷上从留款还可以看到俞希鲁、郭淐题跋,画幅26.3X50厘米,全卷连裱尺幅27.2X543厘米。画中画一块怪石于左,怪石左上显露一些碎小丛竹,怪石之右画一株虬曲的古木,倾斜而上。古木无枝无叶,怪石与古木皆用油腻、灵空、涣散之笔似勾似擦,草草而成。土破一笔带过,怪石似卷云皴,却无皴法,信手而绘,不求形似,不具皴法。朱熹固然对苏东坡 有不满,但也对此画有所称赞:“苏公此纸,出于一时滑稽诙笑之余,初不经意。而其傲风霆,阅古今之气,犹足想见气人也。”(《朱文公文集》卷八十四《跋张以道家藏东坡枯木怪石》)。此画在民国北洋政府时期,与《潇湘竹石图》皆为“方雨楼”所藏。后来,《枯木怪石图》相传卖了给日本藏家,收藏于日本阿部房次郎爽籁馆。
  Su Dongpo can draw, but he can only draw some dead trees, bamboos, strange things and so on. He has a poem: "Dongpo is always photographed in Huzhou, and the bamboo and stone are popular for a while." According to Liu Liangzuo's and Mi Fu's inscriptions and postscripts, it can be seen that the painting of ancient wood and strange stone, which Christie's Hong Kong autumn auction is to be shot, is not of Sushi's money. The inscription and postscript of Yu Xilu and Guo Xuan can be seen from the retention on this scroll. The picture size is 26.3x50cm and the whole scroll is 27.2x543cm. In the picture, a strange stone is painted on the left. On the left of the strange stone, there are some small clusters of bamboos. On the right of the strange stone, there is an ancient wood with a curve, leaning upward. Ancient trees have no branches or leaves. Strange stones and ancient trees are made of greasy, empty and lax pens and grass. With a brush of broken earth, the strange stone looks like a cloud, but it has no texturing method. It can be drawn by hand, without shape or texturing method. Although Zhu Xi was dissatisfied with Su Dongpo, he also praised the painting: "Su Gong's paper, out of a moment of humor and humor, was not intended at first. And its arrogant wind Ting, read ancient and modern gas, still want to see angry people (Volume 84 of Zhu Wen's official document collection "Ba Zhang collects the dead wood and strange stone of Dongpo in Taoism"). During the period of Beiyang Government in the Republic of China, both the painting and the painting of Xiaoxiang bamboo and stone were collected by Fang Yulou. Later, "the painting of dead wood and strange stones" was sold to Japanese collectors and collected in Japanese tajira Pavilion of Abe Fang.
  苏东坡以为:“观士人画如阅天下马(千里马),取其意气所到。乃若画工,常常只取鞭笞、皮毛、槽栃、刍秼,无一俊发,看数尺便倦。汉杰,真士人画也。(《东坡题跋》下卷《又跋汉杰画山》)”他以为士人画(文人画)和画工画不同,前者注重“意气”,后者只取“皮毛”。因而,士人画(文人画)不在于“形似”,而在于写其生气,传其神态。他陈提诗“论画以形似,见与儿童邻;赋诗必此诗,定非知诗人。诗画本一概,天工与清新。边鸾雀写生,赵昌画传神,何如此两幅,疏澹含精匀。谁言一点红,解寄无边春”。苏东坡“论画以形似,见与儿童邻”的艺术见解,使得中国画发作了划时期的庞大变化。其“简古”、“恬淡”和反对“狂放”的艺术恳求不时影响着元代及其后的绘画方向。后世无不把“平淡”、“柔润”作为艺术的更高作风和正宗,而视狂放、刚健为怪,为旁门左道。清代袁枚的诗歌美学和诗歌理论著作《随园诗话》中就有“友如作画须求淡,山似论文不喜平”的诗句。
  Su Dongpo thought: "the paintings of scholars are like reading the sky and dismounting a horse (a thousand li horse), and they are drawn according to their wishes.". But if the painter often only takes the lash, the fur, the groove, the cud, without a handsome hair, he will be tired if he looks at the number of feet. Han Jie, real scholar painting. (the second volume of "Dongpo inscriptions and postscripts" also postscripts the painting mountain of Han Jie) "he thought that the literati painting (literati painting) was different from the painter painting, the former paid attention to" spirit ", the latter only took" fur ". Therefore, scholars' paintings (literati paintings) do not lie in "resemblance of form", but in writing their vitality and passing on their expressions. His poems are similar in shape and close to children. If he wrote poems, he would not know the poet. The book of poetry and painting is all about nature and freshness. Side Luan bird sketching, Zhao Chang painting vivid, how so two, sparse Dan contain fine even. Who said a little red, send boundless spring. Su Dongpo's artistic view of "painting is similar in form and adjacent to children" has made great changes in Chinese painting. His artistic appeals of "simplicity", "indifference" and against "extravagance" influenced the direction of painting in Yuan Dynasty and later. Later generations all regard "plainness" and "softness" as the highest style and authentic of art, and regard unrestrained and vigorous as strange, as a side street. Yuan Mei's poetry aesthetics and poetry theory work "Suiyuan poetry talks" in the Qing Dynasty contains the poem "friends like painting need light, mountains like paper don't like flat".
  可能是由于苏东坡的表述方式过于简约,从字面上看就是反对“形似”而追求“神似”。这也惹起后人的非议,明代文人杨慎就直接批判到:“其言有偏,非至论也”。其真实苏轼的绘画观念中,绘画的理想境地是“形而传神”,“神似“是基于“形似”的,只需做到了“形似”才干更好的做到“神似”。苏东坡并没有承认形似,他所说的“横斜平直,各相乘除,得自然之数,不差毫末”就是对形似的强调。
  It may be that Su Dongpo's way of expression is too simple, which literally opposes "likeness of form" and pursues "likeness of spirit". Yang Shen, a scholar in Ming Dynasty, criticized directly that "his words are biased, not to the point of view.". In Su Shi's real concept of painting, the ideal position of painting is "shape and spirit", and "God like" is based on "shape like". Only by "shape like" can we better achieve "God like". Su Dongpo didn't admit the similarity of form. What he said is that "the horizontal slope is straight, the multiplication and division of each phase can get the number of nature, without any difference" is the emphasis on the similarity of form.
  文人画的画艺书风 倡导者大多是进入科举仕途的仕宦文人。他们主张把书画作为从政“余事”,只想借作品中表现人品、修养、才情和审美情味。文人画兴起,特别是文人画家“诗画本一概,天工与清新”和“诗中有画”、“画中有诗”的主张,也影响了皇家花园,既表往常《宣和画谱》的编写当中,也表现了在画院以诗句命题的考试方式上。苏东坡作为文人画的理论推进者,并没有特地的论画著作,他的画论散见于他的诗文集中。
  Most of the advocators of the style of painting and calligraphy of literati are the official literati who entered the imperial examination career. They advocated that painting and calligraphy should be regarded as the "surplus" of politics, and only wanted to show the character, accomplishment, talent and aesthetic taste in their works. The rise of literati painting, especially the literati painters' ideas of "poetry and painting are all in one, nature and freshness" and "painting in poetry" and "poetry in painting", has also influenced the royal garden. It is not only reflected in the compilation of Xuanhe painting manual, but also in the examination mode of poetry proposition in the painting academy. Su Dongpo, as a theoretical promoter of literati painting, has no special works on painting. His painting theory is scattered in his poetry collection.
  世人对苏东坡的诗词耳熟能详,他的故事也算是众所周知。对中国传统美术有点兴味的受众对他的书法作品也颇有喜欢,在两岸故宫均有珍藏他的书法作品,可他的绘画作品传播于世的真是凤毛麟角。他对文人画的进程起到的作用,在开篇曾经有所叙说。苏东坡天生没有神秘主义倾向,对他来说“道”可以简单理解为正确靠近生活与艺术。在《苏东坡集》中有几段话能很好的表达他绘画美学思想的阐述,如“与可画竹时,见竹不见人。岂独不见人,嗒然遗其身。其身与竹化,无量出清新。庄周世无有,谁知此疑神(《苏东坡》集前集卷十六《书晁补之说藏与可画竹》)”在《石氏画苑记》中,他欣赏石康伯弃官隐居,他以为作画,主要是为了取乐自娱,养生益身;戏翰笔墨,自适其志。这些都被后来董其昌“南北宗论”说全盘继承。
  Su Dongpo's poems are well known in the world, and his stories are well known. The audiences who are interested in Chinese traditional art also like his calligraphy works. His calligraphy works are collected in the Forbidden City on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, but his paintings are rarely spread in the world. He played a role in the process of literati painting, which was narrated at the beginning. Su Dongpo was born without mysticism. For him, "Tao" can be simply understood as being close to life and art. In the collection of Su Dongpo, there are several paragraphs that can express his aesthetic thoughts of painting very well, such as "when you can draw bamboo, you can't see people when you see bamboo.". Don't you just see people and leave them alone. Its body and bamboo, no amount of fresh. Zhuangzhou has no such thing. Who knows that he doubts God? (Su Dongpo, Volume 16, book Chao Bu's theory of hiding and paintable bamboo) in the story of Shi's painting garden, he appreciates Shi KangBo's seclusion from the official. He thinks that painting is mainly for fun and self entertainment, health preservation and self-interest. Playing with Han's brush and ink, he adapts to his ambition. These were all inherited by Dong Qichang's theory of southern and Northern clans.
  以上是国画批发网分享苏东坡是对文人画的影响,想要了解更多内容,欢迎访问网站:http://www.hzzhpf.com
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