In the true Northern Song Dynasty, all the arts showed a similar interest: new poetry, calligraphy and painting were created by a group of people, namely Su Dongpo and his friends. Su Shi likes to make friends, and his personality has a profound impact on his friends. Among the literati who are keen on painting creation and comment, Su Dongpo is the central figure. The group centered on Su Dongpo also includes three famous painters, Wen Tong, Li Gonglin and Wang Shen, the son-in-law. Su Dongpo is a close relative of Wen Tong, a great painter. He is also a friend of Li Gonglin, Wang Shen and Mi Fu. Wen Tong and others have taught him how to draw. In terms of painting, the arts of Wen Tong, Li Gonglin and Mi Fu may be better than those of Su Dongpo, but Su Dongpo's fame makes other literati quickly accept the literati art. In the field of calligraphy, the new paradigm initiated by Cai Xiang was further developed in Su Dongpo, Huang Tingjian and Mi Fu. Although their style of work is based on Wang Xizhi's study, this new paradigm is not rigid. It seems that Su Dongpo and Mi Fu are the most important ones to express their hearts and minds directly, but they don't care much about the perfection of aesthetics and have great personality. So once they turn to painting, they will create a new way of expression and cultivate their own style. The artistic conception in Su Shi's freehand brushwork is exactly what Mei Yaochen and Huang Tingjian praised in their poems.
In the "Wutai poem case", Wang Shen heard about the arrest of Su Dongpo, and immediately sent a messenger to let Su Dongpo prepare for it. Wang Shen was later implicated in the "Wutai poem case" and was demoted to be the commander of Zhaohua army. This shows that Wang Shen and Su Dongpo have deep feelings.
The literati themselves did not fail to realize that they played the role of reformers in poetry and calligraphy. Maybe this is the understanding behind the definition of Su Dongpo's literati painting. In Su Dongpo's view, painting is an art like poetry and should be a way of self-expression in his spare time. Literati painting is a way for literati to show their personality, but these works are often created when friends have a drink party. Su Dongpo played an important role in literati communication for the first time. It's said that in the painting of elegant collection of Western Garden drawn by Li Gonglin, it shows their gathering scene in Wang Shen's western garden, immersed in typical literati entertainment. Su Dongpo often improvises when drinking with his friends, and his poems often rush out in this way. Once he went to visit Mi Fu. The ink, paper, inkstone and wine were ready on the table. They wrote poems and sang with each other all night long. Mi Fu informs us how Su Dongpo drew the picture...... When I first saw Gong, I was drunk, and said, "you stick this paper on the wall, so is Guanyin paper.". That is, two bamboos, a dead tree and a strange stone. (Mi Fu, painting history) "Huang Tingjian once described Su Dongpo's typical state at the party: he had a limited amount of alcohol, fell asleep after a few drinks, and soon he was too busy to start painting and calligraphy. In Guo Xiangzheng's drunken painting of bamboo and stone walls, he wrote a poem to thank Guo for leaving the ancient bronze sword, Su Dongpo apologized to his master, Guo Xiangzheng, and went to his master's house as a guest. After drinking, he painted the bamboo and stone on the white wall of his master's house.
Wang Shen once invited 16 people to visit the park, including Su Shi, Su Zhe, Huang Tingjian, Mi Fu, Cai Zhao, Li Zhiyi, Li Gonglin, Chao Buzhi, Zhang Lei, Qin Guan, Liu Jing, Chen Jingyuan, Wang Qinchen, Zheng Jiahui, and master Yuantong (Japanese monk who crossed Song Dynasty, Dajiang Dingji). Li Gonglin wrote the Western Garden atlas, which Mi Fu wrote down, namely, the Western Garden atlas. It is historically known as "West Garden elegant collection".
In Mi Fu's painting history, he pointed out that "deep ink is the surface, light ink is the back, and we can start with it." Compared with Su Dongpo's, the painting method of this work is more stable, and it is also a model work of literati's ink and bamboo painting that we can see early now. This painting has no style, only two prints: "quiet and leisure room", "Wen Tong and Ke".
Su Dongpo can draw, but he can only draw some dead trees, bamboos, strange things and so on. He has a poem: "Dongpo is always photographed in Huzhou, and the bamboo and stone are popular for a while." According to Liu Liangzuo's and Mi Fu's inscriptions and postscripts, it can be seen that the painting of ancient wood and strange stone, which Christie's Hong Kong autumn auction is to be shot, is not of Sushi's money. The inscription and postscript of Yu Xilu and Guo Xuan can be seen from the retention on this scroll. The picture size is 26.3x50cm and the whole scroll is 27.2x543cm. In the picture, a strange stone is painted on the left. On the left of the strange stone, there are some small clusters of bamboos. On the right of the strange stone, there is an ancient wood with a curve, leaning upward. Ancient trees have no branches or leaves. Strange stones and ancient trees are made of greasy, empty and lax pens and grass. With a brush of broken earth, the strange stone looks like a cloud, but it has no texturing method. It can be drawn by hand, without shape or texturing method. Although Zhu Xi was dissatisfied with Su Dongpo, he also praised the painting: "Su Gong's paper, out of a moment of humor and humor, was not intended at first. And its arrogant wind Ting, read ancient and modern gas, still want to see angry people (Volume 84 of Zhu Wen's official document collection "Ba Zhang collects the dead wood and strange stone of Dongpo in Taoism"). During the period of Beiyang Government in the Republic of China, both the painting and the painting of Xiaoxiang bamboo and stone were collected by Fang Yulou. Later, "the painting of dead wood and strange stones" was sold to Japanese collectors and collected in Japanese tajira Pavilion of Abe Fang.
Su Dongpo thought: "the paintings of scholars are like reading the sky and dismounting a horse (a thousand li horse), and they are drawn according to their wishes.". But if the painter often only takes the lash, the fur, the groove, the cud, without a handsome hair, he will be tired if he looks at the number of feet. Han Jie, real scholar painting. (the second volume of "Dongpo inscriptions and postscripts" also postscripts the painting mountain of Han Jie) "he thought that the literati painting (literati painting) was different from the painter painting, the former paid attention to" spirit ", the latter only took" fur ". Therefore, scholars' paintings (literati paintings) do not lie in "resemblance of form", but in writing their vitality and passing on their expressions. His poems are similar in shape and close to children. If he wrote poems, he would not know the poet. The book of poetry and painting is all about nature and freshness. Side Luan bird sketching, Zhao Chang painting vivid, how so two, sparse Dan contain fine even. Who said a little red, send boundless spring. Su Dongpo's artistic view of "painting is similar in form and adjacent to children" has made great changes in Chinese painting. His artistic appeals of "simplicity", "indifference" and against "extravagance" influenced the direction of painting in Yuan Dynasty and later. Later generations all regard "plainness" and "softness" as the highest style and authentic of art, and regard unrestrained and vigorous as strange, as a side street. Yuan Mei's poetry aesthetics and poetry theory work "Suiyuan poetry talks" in the Qing Dynasty contains the poem "friends like painting need light, mountains like paper don't like flat".
It may be that Su Dongpo's way of expression is too simple, which literally opposes "likeness of form" and pursues "likeness of spirit". Yang Shen, a scholar in Ming Dynasty, criticized directly that "his words are biased, not to the point of view.". In Su Shi's real concept of painting, the ideal position of painting is "shape and spirit", and "God like" is based on "shape like". Only by "shape like" can we better achieve "God like". Su Dongpo didn't admit the similarity of form. What he said is that "the horizontal slope is straight, the multiplication and division of each phase can get the number of nature, without any difference" is the emphasis on the similarity of form.
Most of the advocators of the style of painting and calligraphy of literati are the official literati who entered the imperial examination career. They advocated that painting and calligraphy should be regarded as the "surplus" of politics, and only wanted to show the character, accomplishment, talent and aesthetic taste in their works. The rise of literati painting, especially the literati painters' ideas of "poetry and painting are all in one, nature and freshness" and "painting in poetry" and "poetry in painting", has also influenced the royal garden. It is not only reflected in the compilation of Xuanhe painting manual, but also in the examination mode of poetry proposition in the painting academy. Su Dongpo, as a theoretical promoter of literati painting, has no special works on painting. His painting theory is scattered in his poetry collection.
Su Dongpo's poems are well known in the world, and his stories are well known. The audiences who are interested in Chinese traditional art also like his calligraphy works. His calligraphy works are collected in the Forbidden City on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, but his paintings are rarely spread in the world. He played a role in the process of literati painting, which was narrated at the beginning. Su Dongpo was born without mysticism. For him, "Tao" can be simply understood as being close to life and art. In the collection of Su Dongpo, there are several paragraphs that can express his aesthetic thoughts of painting very well, such as "when you can draw bamboo, you can't see people when you see bamboo.". Don't you just see people and leave them alone. Its body and bamboo, no amount of fresh. Zhuangzhou has no such thing. Who knows that he doubts God? (Su Dongpo, Volume 16, book Chao Bu's theory of hiding and paintable bamboo) in the story of Shi's painting garden, he appreciates Shi KangBo's seclusion from the official. He thinks that painting is mainly for fun and self entertainment, health preservation and self-interest. Playing with Han's brush and ink, he adapts to his ambition. These were all inherited by Dong Qichang's theory of southern and Northern clans.
The above is the influence of Su Dongpo on literati painting. For more information, please visit http://www.hzzhpf.com