In the Qing Dynasty, there were more and more tampering with ancient painting and calligraphy. The main methods are: complete imitation, using ancient painting and calligraphy as imitation, imitation of stimulants. "Painting and calligraphy said bell" has a more general discussion. In the early stage, there were imitations with regional characteristics, such as Suzhou film, Henan, Changsha, Guangdong, Beijing back door manufacturing, etc. in the later stage, there were more imitations of ghost paintings. This is closely related to the increasingly precious and commercialized works of ancient masters.
I. It's totally fake
There are four main techniques: copying, imitating, imitating and making.
The copy is completely based on the original hook, the more detailed is the characters, flowers and birds and early landscape painting.
Face is the original text, which can be used for freehand brushwork and cursive writing. In the Qing Dynasty, there were many fake books written temporarily, which were very similar to the order of the original painting, but there were always different strokes and details. According to the records of Qianlong period in the Qing Dynasty, Zhai Yuanping copied two very similar forgeries on the central axis of Gao Kegong's "cloud in spring". The volume of Shi Tao's manuscript of poetry and painting (now stored in the Palace Museum), the recording of tiger borrowing famous paintings is the original work, and the recording of Guyuan excerpt is a false reverse.
Copying is not a fixed original, but a copy of the text or general idea. When using the pen, the layout is more natural and not rigid, but more able to show your face. In the Qing Dynasty, there were quite a lot of imitations, some of which reached a certain level. The Qing Dynasty's paintings include Gong Xian, Kun Shen, Yuan Ji, Zhu Da, Wang Wuyun, Yangzhou Eight monsters, Ren Yi, Wu Changshuo and so on, with a large number of imitations. Famous counterfeiters include: Tan Zidi imitates Zheng Banqiao, Zhang Daqian imitates Yuan Ji, Zhu Da, Wang Luo imitates Wang Xiang, fan Ting Town imitates Yun Shouping, etc.
Making means that people make up from nothing. No matter what the original appearance is, they specially forge the works of famous or famous calligraphers and painters of all ages, so that they can't be verified and can't distinguish the true from the false. In the Qing Dynasty, the commodity economy was more developed in the city, this kind of fake and shoddy commodities were rampant.
II. Regional fraud
The fake products of Qing Dynasty also formed regional characteristics, which are commonly known as "Suzhou film" and "back door making".
1. Made in Suzhou: from the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, there were a group of people in Suzhou who mastered the general painting ability and specialized in making fake paintings until the Qing Dynasty. "Suzhou" most newspapers silk scroll painting this painting oil painting, ancient Ming Kuan is good at green landscape artists, such as Zuli, Li Ci, Zhao Bo, Bo, Su (MA), Qiu Ying, etc., especially Qiu Ying's painting "Qingming Festival, spread all over the country, so far only in Qingming Festival hundreds of cars, belong to this kind of" Suzhou ", the layout is the same, but the technology has a higher low, general In other words, saturation is weak.
2. Made in Yangzhou: from Kangxi to Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, the fake paintings in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province were specially made by local masters Yuan Ji and Zheng Xie.
3. Made in Henan: also known as "Kaifeng goods". At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, there were a group of people in Kaifeng who specialized in the study of calligraphy of Tang, song and Yuan Dynasty. They don't make paintings. They are Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, Cai Xiang, Zhao Benbo (Zhao Feng), Xian Yushu, etc. Form multi roll hand, also have hang screen. Its characteristic is very obvious: it is all paper, or Henan characteristic cotton paper, or dye and pink paper after kneading, or wax paper, after writing, coloring knead: writing fluent, font is smooth, knead after writing, and show the old, forgery skills are poor, relatively easy to see through.
4. Made in Hunan: also known as "Changsha goods". During the period from Kangxi to Daoguang in the Qing Dynasty, there were not only picture frames, but also notes and couplets. Most of the names are so-called "abstaining celebrities" in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, or the Calligraphers' cold names, such as Yang Jisheng, Yang Lian, Zhou Shunchang, Shi Kefa, etc., few of them are famous calligraphers. All fabrics are damask or satin, with clear picture structure and no tension. Painting and calligraphy are all aged, that is, after dyeing, wash with water to remove light color, so as to appear gray and aged. This kind of fake is also easy to identify.
5. Made in Guangdong: from the late Qing Dynasty to the modern times, many silk pieces were imitated in Guangdong, mainly with colorful figures, including flowers, mountains and rivers. Sometimes the old alum is too heavy with plastic, the silk is mashed, there is no skeletons, and it will be scattered when touched. Although it looks very old, it is easy to see through its tricks of counterfeiting. There is also a different feature: often in the original works of the Qing Dynasty, that is, adding a "title" in the author's inscription, adding the inscription before the song and Yuan Dynasties in the inscription, pretending to be an ancient painting. This is a way to turn truth into falsehood.
6. Beijing back door: most of the fake paintings made in the Di'anmen District of Beijing in the Qing Dynasty were of the style of "minister", especially famous for Lang shining's large hand paintings, with various themes, but most of them were color paintings. The picture is neat and rich, with many forged Qianlong inscriptions, seals and inscriptions.
For the internal layout copied by mounting, attention shall be paid to the use of materials, but the technical level is low, the paint is rarely changed, and the sealing of seals often violates the regulations. Some of these regional forgeries have continued to modern and modern times. Many small places also have local masterpieces. These forgeries are mainly for profit, but few of them have real artistic value.
III. using the authenticity of ancient calligraphy and painting会有一些书画，运用变化、加、减、折、劈等技法，面貌焕然一新。一般是换没钱有画的画，小名家换大名家，时代越晚换时代越早。虽然这种赝品在古代就已经有人做过了，但尤其是明清时期，手法并不独特，数不胜数。
There will be some paintings and calligraphies, using techniques such as changing, adding, reducing, folding, splitting, etc. to make a new look. Generally, it is to change the paintings with no money and paintings. The later the time is, the earlier the time is. Although this kind of forgery has been done in ancient times, especially in Ming and Qing Dynasties, the technique is not unique and numerous.
Change is the most common pseudo technique, that is, to dig out the seals of posterity or small moderator in the original format, plus the seals of ancient or large moderator.
In addition, there is no painting or calligraphy on the master's seal; or in the Han Dynasty or before the inscriptions of famous scholars, the times or prices are advanced or raised; or ink and color are added to make it fashionable; or a fake money seal is added at the end of the blank page and blank page to raise the prices, etc.
Less is the subtraction of some famous calligraphers and painters. They change their inscriptions into those of famous painters, and sell them as famous painters.
There are many ways to disassemble, such as using fake calligraphy and paintings to disassemble the real works or inscriptions, putting a complete set of original works with cold names together with the forgeries of famous artists, separating a picture book or a picture, or cutting a piece into several pieces, etc.
Ghost painting and calligraphy
I agree with or draw by inspiration, which is different from the general counterfeiting. But it's hard to distinguish the true and the false for the real money of myself, seal, entrusted to others for painting and calligraphy. In fact, it's also a kind of fraud, which should be distinguished.
Some famous calligraphers and painters in Qing Dynasty wrote many ghost books. Painters with high social status or great fame are trapped in social activities and often ask students and friends about ghosts. In terms of painters, Wang Shimin, Wang (production supervisor), Wang, Wang, Wang Yuanqi, Jiang Tingxi, Dong Bangda, Qian Weicheng, Zou Yigui, Jinnong, etc. In calligraphy, Emperor Qianlong was promoted to such an example. Everywhere, we can see that in practical work, the above points are just a rough one. Finding out the problem is not three or two parts or chapters that can be solved. It must be the experience summarized by experts. Writing the content of a book is called Jigan or recognition science, which makes it a special science. There have been sporadic publications in the past, But more people need to design the system.
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